The history of Linux began in 1991 with the commencement of a personal project by Finnish student Linus Torvalds to create a new free operating system kernel. Since then, the resulting Linux kernel has been marked by constant growth throughout its history. Since the initial release of its source code in 1991, it has grown from a small number of C files under a license prohibiting commercial distribution to the 4.2.3 version in 2015 with more than 18 million lines of source code under the GNU General Public

Events leading to creation

After AT&T had dropped out of the Multicast project, the Unix operating system was conceived and implemented by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (both of AT&T Bell Laboratories) in 1969 and first released in 1970. Later they rewrote it in a new programming language, C, to make it portable. The availability and portability of Unix caused it to be widely adopted, copied and modified by academic institutions and businesses.

In 1977, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was developed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) from UC Berkeley, based on the 6th edition of Unix from AT&T. Since BSD contained Unix code that AT&T owned, AT&T filed a lawsuit (USL v. BSDi) in the early 1990s against the University of California. This strongly limited the development and adoption of BSD

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers. Thanks to its dominance on smartphones, Android, which is built on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux, in its original form, is also the leading operating system on servers such as mainframe computers and supercomputers, but is used on only around 3.4% of desktop computers. Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, video and smartwatches.

Servers and supercomputers

Linux has mainly been used as a server operating system, and has risen to be known by a lot of people in that area; Net craft reported in February 2008 that five of the ten best internet hosting companies run Linux on their web servers. This is because of its stability and uptime, and the fact that desktop software with a graphical user interfaces for servers is often unneeded.

Linux is commonly used as an operating system for supercomputers. As of June 2017, out of the top 500 systems, 498 (99.6%) run Linux.

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found this distribution had 30 million lines of code. The study showed that Red Hat 7.1 required about 8,000 years of time to develop. The study also said that if all this software had been made by proprietary means, it would have cost about $1.08 billion to make in the United States. As of 7 March 2011, Linux kernel would cost about $3bn.

Version 3.10 of the Linux kernel, released in June 2013, has 15 million lines of code, while the version 4.1, released in June 2015, has grown to over 19.5 million lines of code by almost 14,000 programmers.

Most of the code (around 71%) was written in the C programming language, and many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. A little more than half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL.

Different Linux versions

People who want to get Linux can download it from the Internet or buy it from a store or a website. Sometimes books and magazines about Linux have a CD or DVD with Linux on it. Any certain version of Linux is called a “distribution”, or “distro”. A Linux version has the Linux kernel and GNU software, and some extra programs that might not be part of GNU. Different versions include different extra programs. The versions used by the most people include:

  • Linux Mint
  • Ubuntu
  • Arch Linux
  • Centos
  • Darian
  • Fedora
  • Gentoo
  • Slack ware
  • opens USE
  • Mageia

Current development

Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.

Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Sunita Computer Center a well-known name in the field of IT education is focused on providing quality IT education to mass by hiring well-educated Teachers at our Institute. Our Professionally Qualified Teachers are well enough experienced to provide theoretical as well as practical knowledge to the students.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *